This fact sheet covers the symptoms, risk factors and diagnosis of mpox.
Visit our mpox (monkeypox) hub for information on how many mpox cases have been identified in NSW since 20 May 2022, as well as how to reduce your risk of catching and spreading the virus.
Mpox is a viral infection that causes a rash. It is mainly spread by skin-to-skin contact with someone who has mpox. Most people recover within a few weeks.
Since May 2022, there has been a global increase in mpox cases reported from multiple countries where mpox is not usually seen. Most of the cases are in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.
While most cases in NSW have been acquired overseas, a small number have acquired their infections in Australia.
Symptoms usually begin 7-14 days after exposure. This can be a few days or as long as 21 days.
Mpox symptoms may include:
People can experience fever, headache, muscle aches, backache, swollen lymph nodes, chills and/or exhaustion prior to the rash or lesions developing.
The lesions start as a flat red rash that develops into pustules, which form crusts or scabs and fall off.
Mpox mainly spreads from one person to another by direct skin-to-skin contact. It may be spread by breathing in droplets breathed out by someone who has mpox during prolonged close contact, but this is rare. It can also be spread through contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects, such as bedding or clothes.
Mpox may be passed on during sex. It is not known how long the mpox virus remains present in semen and other genital excretions. People who have mpox should abstain from sex for the duration of their infection. People who have recovered from mpox should use condoms when engaging in sexual activity for 12 weeks after recovery.
People with mpox are infectious from the time they first get symptoms until all the lesions have crusted, the scabs have fallen off and a fresh layer of skin has formed underneath.
Most people are not at risk of mpox.
People at highest risk are men who have sex with men, particularly those who are travelling to outbreak areas, have multiple sexual partners or attend large parties or sex on premises venues.
To date most people with mpox in Australia have been infected while overseas. However, a small number of people have been infected in Australia.
Vaccination is only one way to prevent mpox infection.
As there is still a risk of infection following vaccination, it’s still important to take steps to reduce the chance of catching or spreading mpox.
For further information on how to stay safe and prevent mpox infection, visit the NSW Health monkeypox (mpox) information hub and the ACON website.
Smallpox vaccines can provide protection against mpox because the two viruses are closely related.
NSW Health has secured supplies of a new vaccine against smallpox (JYNNEOS) which has fewer side effects than previous smallpox vaccines and can be safely used by all groups of people, including people aged over 18 years, who are immunocompromised and who have HIV. Vaccine supply is currently limited due to global demand.
Two doses of the vaccine are required for maximum protection, given at least 28 days apart. The vaccine is most effective two weeks after the second dose and gives an 80% protection against mpox. Mpox vaccines are free in NSW, and you can be vaccinated without a Medicare card.
The vaccine does not transmit mpox or any other pox virus to other people.
Learn more about the mpox vaccine.
NSW Health began vaccinating high-risk groups against mpox in August 2022. Up to 70,000 further doses are expected to arrive in 2023. This will allow more people in NSW to be vaccinated against mpox.
Vaccine eligibility in NSW has been expanded to include:
NSW Health is working closely with partner agencies such as NSW Sexual Health Infolink and ACON on the vaccine rollout.
People who are eligible for the vaccine are able to book an appointment through the NSW Health online booking system. The new booking system gives people who need the vaccine more choice over where, and when, they receive the vaccine.
There is a limited number of appointments and vaccine supply available so eligible members of the community who aren’t yet fully vaccinated are encouraged to book an appointment as soon as possible.
If you are not yet eligible for the vaccine, please continue to check the NSW Health mpox vaccine page for the latest information on the vaccine rollout in NSW.
Diagnosis depends on the doctor suspecting mpox in someone who has mpox symptoms. Infection can be confirmed by testing the blister fluid or scabs from the skin rash.
The illness typically lasts for 2−4 weeks and is mild. Most people with mpox only need regular over-the-counter pain medicines and oral fluids and can be monitored by their GP or treating clinician.
Severe illness can occur, particularly in immunocompromised people. A few people may need intravenous fluids and treatment to control fever or pain.
There are antiviral medications available that may help to treat people with severe illness.
Doctors, hospitals and laboratories must notify any suspected cases to the local public health unit immediately. Public health unit staff will initiate a public health investigation, contact tracing and control measures.
If you think you might have symptoms of mpox, please call ahead to your GP or local sexual health clinic. Wear a mask when attending the clinic.
If you have questions about mpox, contact the NSW Sexual Health Infolink on 1800 451 624.
For free help in your language, call the Translating and Interpreting Service on 13 14 50.