Public health priority: Routine
PHU response time: Enter on NCIMS within 5 working days of notification. Enter confirmed cases only (excludes eye infections).
Case management: Responsibility of treating doctor.
Contact management: Responsibility of treating doctor.
To monitor the epidemiology of the disease and so inform prevention strategies.
A confirmed case requires laboratory definitive evidence (excluding eye infections).
Clinical manifestations of chlamydial infections are difficult to distinguish from gonorrhoea. Symptoms are not necessarily present in all cases.
Chlamydia trachomatis infection of any site is to be notified by laboratories on microbiological confirmation (ideal reporting by routine mail). Only confirmed cases should be entered onto NCIMS.
The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Contact with exudate from mucous membranes of infected people, almost always as a result of sexual activity or perinatal transmission.
The typical incubation period is poorly defined, probably 7 to 14 days or more.
The period of communicability is unknown. Relapses are common, and an infected person may be intermittently infectious over many months.
Many infections are asymptomatic. The usual clinical presentation in males is a urethral discharge. Proctitis may be a presentation of the disease in persons who practise receptive anal intercourse. In females, mucopurulent cervicitis is the usual presentation. Congenital chlamydia generally presents as conjunctivitis or pneumonia in neonates.
Within 5 working days of notification enter on NCIMS confirmed cases only.
In general, the attending medical practitioner is responsible for treatment.
Refer to Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic.
In general, the case's doctor provides educational and counselling. The medical practitioner should provide information to the case about the nature of the infection and the mode of transmission.
Sexual contacts usually up to 6 months depending on symptoms.
The attending doctor is responsible for contact tracing. PHU's should work with Sexual Health Service Staff to assist if requested. Contacts require counselling, examination and testing, and are usually treated.
Case clustering, for example among clients of a sex industry establishment, may indicate the need to initiate an education and/or screening program to meet local requirements.